### About TIMSS Encyclopedia

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### Introduction

- TIMSS 2015: 20 Years of Monitoring Trends
- TIMSS and TIMSS Advanced in 2015
- The Importance of Country and School Contexts in Making International Comparisons
- Demographics of the TIMSS 2015 Countries
- TIMSS 2015 Achievement Results and Context Questionnaire Data
- Organization of the TIMSS 2015 Encyclopedia
- Highlights of TIMSS 2015 Curriculum Questionnaire Results
- Instructional Emphasis in Mathematics and Science
- Updating the Mathematics and Science Curricula
- Investing in Technology to Improve Mathematics and Science Learning
- Raising the Requirements for Mathematics and Science Teaching
- Highlights of Encyclopedia Chapters
- References

### Curriculum Questionnaire Exhibits

- Years of Compulsory Schooling
- National Policies on School Entry and Promotion
- Types of Early Childhood Education
- Topics Covered by Early Childhood Education Curriculum Guidance Documents
- Structural Characteristics of Curricula
- Components Prescribed by Mathematics and Science Curricula
- Instructional Time Devoted to Mathematics and Science Curricula
- Number of TIMSS Topics Intended to Be Taught by the End of Fourth Grade
- Number of TIMSS Topics Intended to Be Taught by the End of Eighth Grade
- Methods Used to Evaluate the Implementation of Mathematics and Science Curricula
- National Policies Regarding Examinations with Consequences for Students
- Processes for Approving Instructional Materials for Mathematics and Science
- National Policies Regarding Use of Technology in Mathematics and Science Instruction
- Main Preparation Routes and Current Requirements for Teachers
- Main Preparation Routes and Current Requirements for Principals

### Country Chapters

- Armenia
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Australia
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Bahrain
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Belgium (Flemish)
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Botswana
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Bulgaria
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Canada
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Chile
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Chinese Taipei
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Croatia
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Cyprus
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Czech Republic
- Introduction
- The Czech Curriculum in Primary and Secondary Schools
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Denmark
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- England
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Finland
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- France
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Georgia
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Germany
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Hong Kong SAR
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Hungary
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Indonesia
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Iran, Islamic Rep. of
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Ireland
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Israel
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Italy
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Japan
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Jordan
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Kazakhstan
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Korea, Rep. of
- Introduction
- The Korean Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Schools
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Kuwait
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Lebanon
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Lithuania
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Malaysia
- Introduction
- The Malaysia Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Schools
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Malta
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Morocco
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Netherlands
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- New Zealand
- Introduction
- The New Zealand Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Schools
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Northern Ireland
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Norway
- Introduction
- TIMSS Target Grades and the Norwegian Curriculum in Basic and Secondary Schools
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Oman
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Poland
- Introduction
- The Polish Curriculum in Primary and Secondary Schools
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Portugal
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Qatar
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Russian Federation
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Saudi Arabia
- Serbia
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Singapore
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Slovak Republic
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Slovenia
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- South Africa
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Spain
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Sweden
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Thailand
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Turkey
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- United Arab Emirates
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- United States
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

### Benchmarking Participants Chapters

- Buenos Aires, Argentina
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Ontario, Canada
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Quebec, Canada
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Abu Dhabi, UAE
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- References

- Dubai, UAE
- Introduction
- The Dubai Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Schools
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References

- Florida, USA
- Introduction
- The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- The Science Curriculum in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Teachers, Teacher Education, and Professional Development
- Instruction for Mathematics and Science in Primary and Lower Secondary Grades
- Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science
- Special Initiatives in Mathematics and Science Education
- Use and Impact of TIMSS
- Suggested Readings
- References